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Conductas de riesgo

Alcohol. Deshabituación

Alcohol. Desintoxicación

  • Algoritmo de tratamiento farmacológico de la dependencia alcohólica. Cadime. 2017. Disponible en:
  • Caputo F, Vignoli T, Grignaschi A, Cibin M, Addolorato G, Bernardi M. Pharmacological management of alcohol dependence: From mono-therapy to pharmacogenetics and beyond. European Neuropsychopharmacology 2014;24: 181-91.
  • Cottencin O. Traitements médicamenteux et psychothérapiques de l'alcoolodépendance. Presse Med. 2018; 47: 677–685.
  • Holt S, Saitz J. Ambulatory management of alcohol withdrawal. Up To Date Sep 2018.
  • Johnson BA, Pharmacotherapy for alcohol use disorder. Up To DATE . Sep 2018.
  • Kaner EFS, Beyer FR, Muirhead C, Campbell F, Pienaar ED, Bertholet N, Daeppen JB, Saunders JB, Burnand B. Effectiveness of brief alcohol interventions in primary care populations.Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2018, Issue 2. Art. No.: CD004148.
  • Kranzler HR, Soyka M, Diagnosis and Pharmacotherapy of Alcohol Use Disorder A Review JAMA. 2018;320(8):815-824.
  • Mirijello A, D’Angelo C, Ferrulli A, Vassallo G, Antonelli M, Caputo F, et al. Identification and Management of Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome. Drugs 2015; 75:353-65.
  • Ntais C, Pakos E, Kyzas P, Ioannidis JPA. Benzodiazepines for alcohol withdrawal. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2005;(3):CD005063.
  • Perry EC. Inpatient Management of Acute Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome CNS. Drugs 2014;28:401-10.

Alcohol. Intoxicación aguda

  • Caputo, F., Agabio, R., Vignoli, T. et al. Intern Emerg Med (2018):Sep 1-18. Disponible en:
  • Cowan E, Su M. Ethanol intoxication in adults. UpToDate Aug /2018.
  • Handy L. Intoxicación aguda por anfetaminas y drogas de diseño. Toxicity, amphetamine. Disponible en:
  • Núñez Gaviño P et al. Tratamiento de la intoxicación aguda por alcohol y otras drogas en urgencias. FMC. 20 16;23(2):97-102.
  • Rao RB, Hoffman RS. Cocaína, anfetaminas y otros simpaticomiméticos. En: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM. Rosen. Medicina de urgencias. Conceptos y práctica clínica. 5 ed. Madrid: Elsevier; 2003. p. 2119-26.
  • Roldán J, Frauca C, Dueñas A. Intoxicación por alcoholes. Disponible en:

Intoxicación aguda por cocaína

  • Gainza I, Nogué S, Martínez C, Hoffman RS, Burillo-Putze G, Dueñas A, et al. Intoxicación por drogas. Disponible en:
  • Lewis Nelson L Odujebe O. Cocaine: Acute intoxication. Up ToDATE . Feb 2018.
  • Pham D, Addison D, Kayani W, Misra A, Jneid, H, Resar J, Lakkis N, Alam MOutcomes of beta blocker use in cocaine-associated chest pain: a meta-analysis Emerg Med J 2018;35:559–563.
  • Richards JR, , HollanderJE, Ramoska EA, Fareed FN, Sand IC, Izquierdo Gomez MM, Lange RA. Blockers, Cocaine, and the Unopposed Stimulation Phenomenon Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics 2017, Vol. 22(3) 239-249.
  • Roldan CJ. Toxicity, Cocaine. Disponible en:

Intoxiación aguda por LSD

  • Colucciello SA, Tomaszewski C. Consumo abusivo de sustancias. En: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM. Rosen. Medicina de urgencias. Conceptos y práctica clínica. 5 ed. Madrid: Elsevier; 2003. p. 2534-45.
  • Delgado J. Intoxication from LSD and other common hallucinogens. UpToDate 5, 2014.
  • Mechen CC. CBRNE - Incapacitating Agents, LSD. Disponible en:


  • Grant JE, Odlaud BL, Screiberg LRN. Pharmacological treatments in pathological gambling. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2012;77(2):375-81.
  • Hodgins DC, Stea JN, Grant JE. Gambling disorders. Lancet 2011;378:1874-84.
  • Singh S, Mallaram GK, Sarkar S. Pathological gambling: An overview. Med J DY Patil Univ 2017;10:120-7.

Opiáceos. Intoxicación aguda o sobredosis

Opiáceos. Síndrome de abstinencia

  • Asho J. Withdrawal Syndromes. Disponible en:
  • Bahji A., Bajaj N.Opioids on trial: A systematic review of interventions for the treatment and prevention of opioid overdose
    Canadian Journal of Addiction 2018 9:1 (26-33).
  • Dematteis M, Auriacombe M, D’Agnone O, Somaini L, Szerman N, Littlewood R, Alam F et al, Recommendations for buprenorphine and methadone therapy in opioid use disorder: a European consensus, Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy, (2017): DOI: 10.1080/14656566.2017.1409722.
  • Detoxification and substance abuse treatment: physical detoxification services for withdrawal from specific substances. Disponible en:

Tabaquismo. Usuario fumador

  • Anthenelli RM, Benowitz NL, West R, St Aubin L, McRae T, Lawrence D, et al. Neuropsychiatric safety and efficacy of varenicline, bupropion, and nicotine patch in smokers with and without psychiatric disorders (EAGLES): a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Lancet. 2016;387(10037):2507-20.
  • Baker TB, Piper ME, Stein JH2 Smith SS, Bolt DM, Fraser DL, Fiore MC. Effects of Nicotine Patch vs Varenicline vs Combination Nicotine Replacement Therapy on Smoking Cessation at 26 Weeks: A Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA. 2016 Jan 26;315(4):371-9. doi: 10.1001/jama.2015.19284.
  • Benowitz NL, Pipe A, West R, Hays JT, Tonstad S, McRae T, et al. Cardiovascular Safety of Varenicline, Bupropion, and Nicotine Patch in Smokers: A Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA Intern Med [Internet]. 9 de abril de 2018 [citado 20 de abril de 2018]; Disponible en:
    Brief interventions and referral for smoking cessation in primary care and other settings. Disponible en:
  • Cahill K, Lindson-Hawley N, Thomas KH, Fanshawe TR, Lancaster T. Nicotine receptor partial agonists for smoking cessation. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2016;(5):CD006103.
  • Fanshawe TR, Halliwell W, Lindson N, Aveyard P, Livingstone-Banks J, Hartmann-Boyce J.Tobacco cessation interventions for young people.
    Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017 Nov 17;11:CD003289. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD003289.pub6.
  • Final Recommendation Statement Tobacco Smoking Cessation in Adults, Including Pregnant Women: Behavioral and Pharmacotherapy . Consultado Octubre 2018. Disponible en:
  • Guidance on the use of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) and bupropion for smoking cessation. Disponible en:
  • Hartmann-Boyce J, Chepkin SC, Ye W, Bullen C, Lancaster T.Nicotine replacement therapy versus control for smoking cessation. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2018, Issue 5. Art. No.: CD000146.
  • Hughes JR, Stead LF, Lancaster T. Antidepressants for smoking cessation. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2007;(3):CD000031.
  • Kotz D, Viechtbauer W, Simpson C, van Schayck OCP, West R, Sheikh A. Cardiovascular and neuropsychiatric risks of varenicline: a retrospective cohort study. Lancet Respir Med. 2015;3(10):761-8.
  • Lindson-Hawley N, Thompson TP, Begh R. Motivational interviewing for smoking cessation (Review). The Cochrane Collaboration. 2015.
  • Lindson N1, Chepkin SC, Ye W, Fanshawe TR, Bullen C, Hartmann-Boyce J Different doses, durations and modes of delivery of nicotine replacement therapy for smoking cessation.
    Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2019 Apr 18;4:CD013308. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD013308.
  • McDonough M. Update on medicines for smoking cessation. Aust Prescr. 2015;38(4):106-11.
  • Nottinghamshire Smoking Cessation Algorithm. Disponible en:
  • Rigotti NA. Pharmacotherapy for smoking cessation in adults. Up To DATE Jul 2018.
  • Sterling LH, Windle SB, Filion KB, Touma L, Eisenberg MJ. Varenicline and Adverse Cardiovascular Events: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials. J Am Heart Assoc. 2016;5(2).
  • Stop smoking interventions and services NICE guideline Published: 28 March 2018 . Disponible en.
  • Thomas KH, Martin RM, Knipe DW, Higgins JPT, Gunnell D. Risk of neuropsychiatric adverse events associated with varenicline: systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ. 2015;350:h1109.